pkg(5): No more installer magic
I thought I would continue probing some of the problems that present themselves to any packaging system that might follow the System V packaging. For the next few topics, I’ll phrase the problem in terms of an outcome I believe we want to avoid. Here we discuss aspects of eliminating special metadata from installers.
If you’re familiar with the packaging and installation components involved with Solaris Express, Developer Edition, or any of the OpenSolaris distributions that Sun produces, then it won’t surprise you that there’s a large amount of upgrade specific knowledge in the installation layer. For instance, to upgrade a package installed with Solaris 10 to its currently delivered version in a recent build, there’s the set of files associated with the package—and then there’s the package history, which collects additional information, like files no longer delivered, or the responsibility of another package. The presence of this file, and the absence of a true package upgrade operation in System V packaging, mean that any kind of upgrade requires some form of installer: the operating system installer for upgrading the entire installation; an application-specific installer for upgrading a group of related application packages.
There are a number of other metadata files trapped in the installation layer, but the most important are the metacluster files, which group the package clusters into large installation profiles, and the package clusters themselves, which group sets of packages along feature boundaries, approximately. It seems evident that these groupings are merely another kind of dependency, much like how a System V package can, naïvely state a dependency on any other System V package.
The System V dependencies also show that another critical piece of metadata—the versioning vector, or “arrow of time”—is encoded in the installer.
All of this information, if we are to allow packages to upgrade from one version to another in some linear fashion, needs to be pulled out of the installers and moved into some aspect of the packaging system. This change in responsibility means that the role of the installer becomes more precise: it must prepare a location for software installation, optionally lay down some initial, and possibly stale image, and collect any required configuration information. Subsequent upgrade operations are driven primarily by the packaging system, which can utilize the version history and dependencies in a manner at least equivalent to what the historical metadata allows.
The other reason that we wish to push that historical metadata into the packaging system is so that it becomes accessible to a new class of application: the distro construction toolkit, which needs the dependency and versioning information to simplify the construction of self-consistent installable images. That leads us to an architectural diagram like
where we’ve suggested some internal structure to an updated packaging system. This separation shouldn’t be that surprising: in the current system,
lumake(1M) and most of LiveUpgrade as well as
zoneadm(1M) for Zones are both performing image operations on either side of any packaging operations they might invoke. Designing a packaging system that makes the constructions of distributions and their installers substantially simpler will require such an API layer.
There are some open questions that come to mind:
- How much variation is there in the initial preparation an installer offers for the image location? Is space management a policy owned exclusively by the installer, or should the image operations layer have the ability to influence that allocation?
- Is there a marshallable image description, beyond the package dependencies? Is there a marshallable image format, or are we restricted to end-use formats, like ISO images or archived zones?
- What OS services should we consider modifying, beyond taking advantage of ZFS’s current capabilities?
If you’re interested in these questions, or the potential architecture of a packaging system, we’ll be discussing these topics further in the Install community group.